Diet: Grasses make up about 70% of the Grevy's zebra's diet. , Zebras are classified in the genus Equus (known as equines) along with horses and asses. Zebras communicate with various vocalisations, body postures and facial expressions. AZA 1994, Burton Read full article: Two zebra foals just start of Altina bab...→ 2020-11-03. The family stallion takes up the rear. This causes immigration of zebra from other herds and creates further growth in the population. Birth Rate. google_alternate_color = "FFFFFF"; For people of the African diaspora, the zebra represented the politics of race and identity, being both black and white. have degraded the dominant Acacia/Commiphora woodlands.  The quagga had brown and white stripes on the head and neck, brown upper parts and a white belly, tail and legs.. distances within 45 minutes of birth. Asked by Wiki User. Social grooming strengthens social bonds in plains and mountain zebras. google_color_bg = "ffffff"; Nevertheless, they can subsist on lower-quality vegetation. This greeting is usually performed among harem or territorial males or among bachelor males playing. Arkive, Zwai, and Somalia. (WCMC/WWF 1997), Distribution Loss of Staying in a territory offers a female protection from harassment by outside males, as well as access to a renewable resource. 125 to 150 centimeters in length (50-60 inches) Life span.  When migrating, they appear to rely on some memory of the locations where foraging conditions were best and may predict conditions months after their arrival. Zebra #1 (49 Kb JPEG); Grevy's 1970's, especially until 1976, when Kenya passed protection laws. Zebra #2 (Huffman 2004). (IUCN 2004), [Note: Figures given are for wild populations only. Answer. Intl. Zebra are identified by photos of the stripe pattern on their right rump, which is analysed by computer software.  E. oldowayensis is identified from remains in Olduvai Gorge dating to 1.8 mya. Males have spade-shaped canines, which can be used as weapons in fighting.  Nile crocodiles also prey on zebras when they near water.  Diagnostic traits of the zebra skull include: its relatively small size with a straight profile, more projected eye sockets, narrower rostrum, reduced postorbital bar, a V-shaped groove separating the metaconid and metastylid of the teeth and both halves of the enamel wall being rounded. (Olson & Dinerstein 1998, Olson & Dinerstein 1999). †E.  Zebras have been featured as characters in animated films like Khumba, The Lion King and the Madagascar films and television series such as Zou. These groups have their own home ranges, which overlap, and they tend to be nomadic. , Fertile hybrids have been reported in the wild between plains and Grévy's zebra. A two sex, age-structured model (Dobson and Lyles, 1989) was used to forecast yearly birth rates and population sizes of zebras.All females 4 year old or greater were assumed to be reproductive and 3-year-old females were assumed to be capable of reproducing depending upon population density ().Age-specific survival rates and fecundity were estimated from “Sight–Resight” data. Zebra stripes come in different patterns, unique to each individual. Only unhealthy stallions have their harems taken over, and even then, the new stallion gradually takes over, pushing the old one out without a fight. E. zebra. The average May–October growth rate of newly recruited individuals, based on a von Bertalanffy growth model fitted to monthly shell-length composition data, was 0.11 mm/d. On average, zebra mussels live 2-5 years and can reproduce by their second year. In addition, reduced river flow, Birth Rate: A mare usually bears 1 young at a time. , Zebras are easily recognised by their bold black-and-white striping patterns. The eyes of zebras are at the sides and far up the head, which allows them to see above the tall grass while grazing. This large amount of grass causes the birth rate to increase. Equus grevyi. The zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) is the most common estrildid finch of Central Australia and ranges over most of the continent, avoiding only the cool moist south and some areas of the tropical far north. trees. Who doesn't love being #1? It weighs 770 to 990 lbs. Some stallions  Hybridisation has also been recorded between the plains and mountain zebra, though it is possible that these are infertile due to the difference in chromosome numbers between the two species.  In harem-holding species, oestrus in a female becomes less noticeable to outside males as she gets older, hence competition for older females is virtually nonexistent. Bachelors prepare for their adult roles with play fights and greeting/challenge rituals, which make up most of their activities. Victor Vasarely depicted zebras as mere bands of black and white and joined together in a jigsaw puzzle fashion. Grevy’s also are taller, have larger ears, and have narrower stripes than plains zebras. May occur in Sudan. 2004, IUCN 1994, IUCN 1996, They then may rub and press their shoulders against each other and rest their heads on one another. They have been featured in art and stories in Africa and beyond. The difference in male/female weight can be up to 25% to 30%. The population has reached carrying capacity. Plains zebras are more water-dependent and live in more mesicenvironments than other species. The birth took place in the Royal Burgers’ Zoo, in Arnhem, Netherlands, on Nov. 11. Zebroids are usually infertile and may suffer from dwarfism.  A group of zebras is referred to as a herd, dazzle, or zeal. , Zebras are preyed on mainly by lions. Important areas for the Grévy's zebra include Yabelo Wildlife Sanctuary and Chelbi Sanctuary in Ethiopia and Buffalo Springs, Samburu and Shaba National Reserves in Kenya. Chew Bahar. Lion - Lion - Reproduction and life cycle: Both sexes are polygamous and breed throughout the year, but females are usually restricted to the one or two adult males of their pride. It is now restricted to Ethiopia and Kenya, and possibly Sudan. Zebras have been popular in photography, with some wildlife photographers describing them as the most photogenic animal. Individual long-term ranges of both females and males can cover up to 10,000 Gestation and Birth. Groups of lactating females are able to remain in groups with nonlactating ones and usually gather at foraging areas. 2012. Rates Visualization; 15:08:55 UTC: One birth every 9 seconds: One death every 11 seconds: One international migrant (net) every 46 seconds: Net gain of one person every 20 seconds . "Early birth linked to greater risk of hospital visits during childhood: Findings indicate that gestational age at birth is a strong predictor of ill health throughout childhood." Read full article: Two zebra foals just start of Altina bab...→ 2020-11-03. males weigh 380 - 450 kg (avg 430 kg) (836 - 990 lb (avg 950 lb)). It is possible that having evolved under pressure from the many large predators of Africa, including early humans, they became more aggressive, thus making domestication more difficult. the northeast of Lake Turkana, the Alledeghi plains; the Yabello Sanctuary and around Lake Newborn foals can stand after six minutes, walk after 20 minutes, and they can run after an hour. , Among plains and mountain zebras, the adult females mate only with their harem stallion, while in Grévy's zebras, mating is more promiscuous and the males have larger testes for sperm competition. The quagga, a type of plains zebra, was driven to extinction in the 19th century.  A 2013 phylogenetic study found that the plains zebra is more closely related to Grévy's zebras than mountain zebras. prerogatives. 12 to 13 years. This is the match sheet of the Tohoku Soccer League (Div.1) game between Morioka Zebra and Blancdieu Hirosaki on Jul 10, 2016. Mountain zebras are from 3.8 to 4.9 feet (116 to 150 cm) tall at the shoulder and weigh 529 to 820 lbs. Leopards, cheetahs, spotted hyenas, brown hyenas and wild dogs pose less of a threat to adults. Males assess the female's reproductive state with a curled lip and bared teeth (flehmen response) and the female will solicit mating by backing in. *** A young Grevy's zebra can walk within a half hour of birth and can run for short  The general pattern is a dorsal line that extends from the forehead to the tail.  Biting and kicking are a zebra's defense tactics. Zebras also communicate with visual displays, and the flexibility of their lips allows them to make complex facial expressions. if there is permanent water within reach every 2 - 5 days (for lactating mares 1 - 2 days) Several theories have been proposed for the function of these stripes, with most evidence supporting them as a form of protection from biting flies. These three groups are the only living members of the family Equidae. close to water. A zebra may signal an intention to kick by laying back its ears and sometimes lashing the tail. They are known for being among the last animals to be featured in the dictionary and in children's alphabet books where they are often used to represent the letter 'Z'. Zebras[a] (subgenus Hippotigris) are African equines with distinctive black-and-white striped coats. grassland growing on deep sand, hard-pans, sumplands and in areas where fire and elephants ", "Lessons for conservation management: Monitoring temporal changes in genetic diversity of Cape mountain zebra (, "The status of Namibia's Hartmann's zebra", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Zebra&oldid=991987241, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Modern range of the three living zebra species. for Decline) A lion has to surprise a zebra within the first six seconds of breaking cover. In fact, after only 15 minutes, the foal can walk and after one hour, it will be able to run. , Zebra species have two basic social structures. the largest that have been found in any ungulate Mares may wander through several territories but remain in one when they have young.  In 1882, Ethiopia sent a zebra to French president Jules Grévy, and the species it belonged to was named in his honour. It is suggested the species was closely related to the Grévy's zebra and may have been its ancestor. It also browses on shrubs and Usually August or September, but mating and births can occur all during the year. 5. Grooming usually occurs between mothers and foals and between stallions and mares. *** The Grevy's zebra is the largest of the wild equids. 4. months of age. Grevy's zebra. Status and Trends (IUCN Status, Countries Where google_color_text = "000000"; 0 1 2. there. Providing that husbandry requirements are being maintained to a high standard, diseases and infection outbreaks are usually avoided.  Captive zebras have been bred with horses and donkeys; these are known as zebroids. 350 to 450 kilograms (770-994 pounds) Size. After their first ovulatory cycle, they have to wait for a two-year period to breed an infant. The Grevy’s are more closely related to the wild ass than the horse, while the plains zebra is more closely related to the horse. Distribution , In cultures outside of its range, the zebra has been thought of as a more exotic alternative to the horse; the comic book character Sheena, Queen of the Jungle, is depicted riding a zebra and explorer Osa Johnson was photographed riding one. Harems travel in a consistent filing order with the high-ranking mares and their offspring leading the groups followed by the next-highest ranking mare and her offspring, and so on. Zebras and asses diverged from each other close to 2.8 mya and zebra ancestors entered Africa around 2.3 mya. (Kingdon 1997) It is able to live in deserts  With the plains zebra, the males in a bachelor group have strong bonds and have a linear dominance hierarchy. In reserves, another threat results from uncontrolled tourism, which causes There are no permanent bonds between adults.  With smaller predators like hyenas and dogs, zebras may act more aggressively, especially in defense of their young.  Later genetic studies have placed it as the same species as the plains zebra, either a subspecies or just the southernmost population. google_ad_client = "pub-8361005144129578"; of its former range; east of the Rift Valley and Lake Turkana, north of Mount Kenya and  A 2017 mitochondrial DNA study placed the Eurasian E. ovodovi and the subgenus Sussemionus lineage as closer to zebras than to asses. disturbance and destruction of vegetation. However growth will not be sustained for ever and resources will start to drain. A zebra has given birth to an extremely rare baby zonkey after wandering away from home and mating with an amorous donkey. 2004, groupings lasting longer than a few months. Many flocked to see it at its paddock at Buckingham Palace. Period, Birth Season, Birth Rate, Early Development, Maximum Age, Diet, Behavior, Social Databank 2004). A solitary breeding stallion maintains a large territory and associates with Scientific name. Poaching is no longer a google_ad_format = "728x90_as"; E. quagga The most successful males win grassy territories The Grevy's zebra has an open society in which females with their young and males on 1996, Stuart & Struart 1996, van Dierendonck & de Vries 1996, WCMC/WWF 1997, Home | Rarest The annual density of zebra mussels in Pool 8 of the UMR increased from 3.5/m 2 in 1992 to 14,956/m 2 in 1996. Grasses make up about 70% of the Grevy's zebra's diet. The sole natural factor limiting the mouse population in the home is the limitation of resources such as food. Visual displays also incorporate the positions of the head, ears, and tail. The Grevy's zebra has an open society in which females with their young and males Conservation efforts by the South African National Parks have since allowed the populations to grow to over 2,600 by the 2010s. northeast of Lake Turkana in Ethiopia, south into Zebras also have complex patterns around the eyes and the lower jaw. 2004, IUCN/SSC Eq. mi) (Kingdon 1997). Impalas have beautiful glossy coats. Zebras inhabit eastern and southern Africa and can be found in a variety of habitats such as savannahs, grasslands, woodlands, shrublands and mountainous areas. Zebra mussels can reduce filtration rates (more frequent interruption of filtering or slower pumping rates) and/or produce pseudofeces above an incipient limiting concentration (ILC) of algae to maintain a constant consumption rate (Sprung and Rose 1988, Fanslow et al. They seldom wander 10–12 km (6.2–7.5 mi) from a water source. Additional threats are due to reduced river flow, due to irrigation, and Weight. (350 to 450 kilograms) and is around 5 feet (1.5 meters) tall from shoulder to hoof. The length of gestation varies by species; it is roughly 11–13 months, and most mares come into oestrus again within a few days after foaling, depending on conditions. Litter size: 1 to 3 cubs. mares only when they enter his territory. It is caused by several different types of non-motile bacteria found in water. Currently Found, Population Estimates, History of Distribution, Threats and Reasons The female Grevy's zebra weighs 350 - 400 kg (avg 385 kg) (770 - 880 lb (avg 847 lb)); African Mammals Databank In contrast to other living equines, zebra forelimbs are longer than their back limbs. Early Development: Young are generally weaned at about 8 - 13 months of age. Rather than following an actual cohort of births throughout life, a period life table follows a synthetic cohort of births and assumes that they are subject at each age to the age-speciﬁc death rates observed during a particular period (Preston et al., 2001). Kenya east of the Rift Valley and Lake Turkana, 3. threat, due to protection under CITES. Their moderately long, erect ears are movable and can locate the source of a sound. A number of estimates have been produced using a variety of assumptions and methods. Index | Links. It soon became the subject of humour and satire, being referred to as "The Queen's Ass", and was the subject of an oil painting by George Stubbs in 1763. north of Mount Kenya and the Tana River, and east into western Somalia. Flattened ears, bared teeth, and abrupt movement of the heads may be used as threatening gestures, particularly among stallions. Zebra Danio are usually straight forward and easy to care for. When migrating, they appear to rely on some memory of the locations where foraging conditions were best and may predict conditions months after their arrival. However, because they can give birth to a foal every 12 months, the size of a social group can double in just a couple of years if the offspring are predominantly female. 2004, Kingdon , As with all wild equines, zebra have barrel-chested bodies with tufted tails, elongated faces and long necks with long, erect manes. The zebra mussel is a highly invasive species that was accidentally introduced to the Great Lakes region of the United States in the 1980s. The Grevy's zebra formerly occurred from central Ethiopia  The plains zebra and mountain zebra were traditionally placed in the subgenus Hippotigris (C. H. Smith, 1841) in contrast to the Grévy's zebra which was considered the sole species of subgenus Dolichohippus (Heller, 1912).  Horses split from asses and zebras around 4 mya, and equines entered Eurasia around 3 mya. , In all species, excess males gather in bachelor groups. More than ever, the birth of a baby zebra is something to marvel at and celebrate, given the fact that two of the three species of zebra … Loss of grazing habitat and access to water, due The plains zebra is the national animal of Botswana and zebras have been depicted on stamps during colonial and post-colonial Africa. Agonistic behaviour between male Grévy's zebras occurs at the border of their territories. Grass and water are major attractions, especially for lactating females. Contact Us.. 1992: Extinct. Films that are rated NC-17 or were originally rated NC-17 before it was changed to an R-rating for re-editing or unrated; although many films since 1968 were originally rated X …  Plains zebras are more water-dependent and live in more mesic environments than other species. Since that time, zebra mussels have continued to coloni… Birth intervals depend mainly on the delay of conception after birth (Puschmann 2003, Barnier et al. 2005) as well as the Horn of Africa Deserts Global 200 Ecoregion. It … The resident stallion tolerates other stallions in his territory, but It experienced a significant decline in the capensis Plains zebras have been recorded travelling 500 km (310 mi) between Namibia and Botswana, the longest land migration of mammals in Africa. Birth Rate: A mare usually bears 1 young at a time. Grevy's zebra weighs 350 - 450 kg (770 - 990 lb). Soon after birth, foals are able to stand up and walk. There are usually 2 years between births.
A strong thunderstorm destroys many of the nests of a bird population. , Unlike horses, zebras and asses have chestnut callosities only on their front limbs. The confusion hypothesis states that the stripes confuse predators, be it by: making it harder to distinguish individuals in a group as well as determining the number of zebras in a group; making it difficult to determine an individual's outline when the group flees; reducing a predator's ability to follow a target during a chase; The social function hypothesis states that stripes serve a role in intraspecific or individual recognition, social bonding, mutual grooming facilitation, or a signal of fitness.  Molecular evidence supports zebras as a monophyletic lineage. It has not been seen in Somalia since 1973 and is presumed to be extinct Often, such species become invasive, as seen in the above examples of zebra mussels and the introduction of rabbits in Australia. , Non-African equines that may have been basal to zebras include E. sansaniensis of Eurasia (circa 2.5 mya) and E. namadicus (circa 2.5 mya) and E. sivalensis (circa 2.0 mya) of the Indian subcontinent. There are three extant species: the Grévy's zebra (Equus grevyi), plains zebra (E. quagga) and the mountain zebra (E. zebra). "Further evidence for male infanticide and feticide in captive plains zebra, "The Story Of... Zebra and the Puzzle of African Animals", "Can Zebras Be Domesticated and Trained? trees. IUCN 2000, IUCN Female Grevy's zebras return to localized birthing areas that appear to be traditional.  The call of the Grévy's zebra has been described as "something like a hippo's grunt combined with a donkey's wheeze", while the mountain zebra is relatively silent.  The plains zebra is a pioneer grazer, mowing down the upper, less nutritious grass canopy and preparing the way for more specialised grazers, which depend on shorter and more nutritious grasses below. world.  Mountain zebra bachelor groups may also include young females that have recently left their natal group, as well as old males they have lost their harems. Diet: Grasses make up about 70% of the Grevy's zebra's diet. Despite these benefits, predation and extinction loom. In Kenya, Grevy's Zebra occurs in much  However, a 2018 study found that zebras do not escape lions by speed alone but by laterally turning, especially when the predator is close behind. Zebras may spend 60–80% of their time feeding, depending on the availability and quality of vegetation. The mountain zebra diverged from the other species around 1.75 mya and the plains and Grévy's zebra split around 1.5 mya.  Plains and mountain zebras strengthen their social bonds with grooming. The function of stripes in zebras has been discussed among biologists since at least the 19th century. The territories of the breeding males are Their dentition is adapted for grazing; they have large incisors that clip grass blades and highly crowned, ridged molars well suited for grinding.  Popular hypotheses include the following: Zebras may travel or migrate to better watered areas. uncontrolled tourism in reserves, which causes disturbance and destruction of vegetation. This in turn led to a decrease in per capita birth rate, a limitation in population growth as a function of population density. These are typically young males that are not yet ready to establish a harem or territory. The belly and legs are white when unstriped, but the muzzle is dark and the skin underneath the coat is uniformly black. Historically, they have been highly sought after by exotic animal collectors, but unlike horses and donkeys, zebras have never been truly domesticated. In the late 1980's it occurred in three isolated populations: Kenya, north of the Tana River; Ethiopia, on the east side of Omo River to Lake Except for the mountain zebra, other species can roll over completely. They gather into large herds and may create temporarily stable subgroups within a herd, allowing individuals to interact with those outside their group. The English name "zebra" dates back to c. 1600, deriving from Italian, Spanish or Portuguese. What is the birth rate of a zebra?  Plains zebras have been recorded travelling 500 km (310 mi) between Namibia and Botswana, the longest land migration of mammals in Africa. Poaching of Grevy's zebra is no longer a threat, due to protection under CITES. , For the Shona people, the zebra is a totem animal and is praised in a poem as an "iridescent and glittering creature". Zebra mussels have been found in the hypolimnetic zone of lakes with oxygen levels of 0.1-11.2 mg/l, and in the epilimnetic zone with oxygen levels of 4.2–13.3 mg/l. established territories are the focal points. 2004: Occurs in Ethiopia and Kenya. From there, the stripes stretch downward except on the rump, where they develop species-specific patterns, and near the nose where they curve toward the nostrils. Endangered animals of the Members of a harem nip and scrape along the neck, withers, and back with their teeth and lips. These animals would eventually be given by the Dutch to the Tokugawa Shogunate of Japan. They are preyed on mainly by lions and typically flee when threatened but also bite and kick. © 1999 - 2019 It apparently experienced a significant (240 to 372 kg), according to the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology.Plains zebras are 3.6 t… The stripes on the legs, ears and tail are separate and horizontal. ], In the past, the Grevy's zebra was found in the Awash Valley, the Ogaden region, and The Maasai proverb "a man without culture is like a zebra without stripes" has become popular in Africa and beyond. Zebra mussels are described as poor O2 regulators, possibly explaining their low success rate in colonizing eutrophic lakes and the hypolimnion.  Zebra stripes are also popularly used for body paintings, dress, furniture and architecture. google_color_url = "000000"; , The word "zebra" was traditionally pronounced with a long initial vowel, but over the course of the 20th century the pronunciation with the short initial vowel became the norm in the UK and the Commonwealth. Females are receptive to mating for three or four days within a widely variable reproductive cycle. Each year, a mature femal e zebra mussel may release up to one million eggs, while the male may release more than two hundred million sperm into the water wh ere fertilization takes place. A territorial Grévy's zebra stallion may tolerate non-territorial bachelors who wander in their territory, however when a mare in oestrous is present the territorial stallion keeps other stallions at bay. , Zebras have been featured in African art and culture for millennia. Body length of 250–300 cm (8.2–9.8 ft) with 38–75 cm (15–30 in) tail, 125–160 cm (4.10–5.25 ft) shoulder height and weighs 352–450 kg (776–992 lb); Body length of 217–246 cm (7.12–8.07 ft) with 47–56 cm (19–22 in) tail, 110–145 cm (3.61–4.76 ft) shoulder height and weighs 175–385 kg (386–849 lb); Body length of 210–260 cm (6.9–8.5 ft) with 40–55 cm (16–22 in) tail, 116–146 cm (3.81–4.79 ft) shoulder height and weighs 204–430 kg (450–948 lb); Southwestern Africa; mountains, rocky uplands and.  In the late 19th century, the zoologist Walter Rothschild trained some zebras to draw a carriage in England, which he drove to Buckingham Palace to demonstrate the tame character of zebras to the public. The group forms a protective front with the foals in the centre, and the stallion will rush at predators that come too close. The estrous cycle or reproductive cycle, the recurring reproductive cycle is 28/30-33 days, depending on the subspecies. 1995, MacMahon 1996). World Population,,, TOP 10 MOST POPULOUS COUNTRIES (July 1, 2020) TOP 10 MOST POPULOUS COUNTRIES (July 1, 2020) However, this happens at three weeks of development for the plains zebra, four weeks for the mountain zebra, and five for Grévy's zebra. A mare usually bears 1 young at a time. †E. The exotic zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771) was first discovered in North America in 1988 in Lake St Clair of the Great Lakes Basin (Hebert, Muncaster & Mackie, 1989).  Zebras may spend seven hours a day sleeping. Squealing is usually made when in pain, but bachelors also squeal while play fighting. Be the first to answer! A zebra is born with camouflage stripes, immediate mobility and a mother's lessons of survival skills. Often, such species become invasive, as seen in the above examples of zebra mussels and the introduction of rabbits in Australia. The death rate was higher than the birth rate, and the immigration rate was equal to the emigration rate. The last known wild quagga died in 1878. As long as a harem stallion is healthy, he is not usually challenged. Darwin wrote in 1871 that "a female zebra would not admit the addresses of a male ass until he was painted so as to resemble a zebra" while Wallace stated in 1871 that: "The stripes therefore may be of use by enabling stragglers to distinguish their fellows at a distance.". When threatened by lions, zebras flee, and when caught they are rarely effective in fighting off the big cats. , In the more arid-living Grévy's zebras, adults have more fluid associations and adult males establish large territories, marked by dung piles, and monopolise the females that enter them. Be the first to answer this question. 1996).  Living in an arid environment, Grévy's zebras have longer nursing intervals and do not drink water until they are three months old. of Africa Biodiversity They are solitary or live in a variety of  Civil wars in some countries have also caused declines in zebra populations. , Zebras have been popular subjects for paintings, particularly for abstract, modernist and surrealist artists. †E. some reserves in Kenya. The difference in timing is thought to be responsible for the differences in the striping patterns of the different species. It also browses on shrubs and (Kingdon 1997). The fly protection hypothesis holds that the stripes deter biting flies. B. It lives in arid, open bushed An increased birth rate will result in population growth, which can lead to the overpopulation of a species if such growth exceeds the resources within a particular geographic area. Map #1 (31 Kb GIF) (IUCN/SSC Eq. Subdominants have territories farther away, near foraging areas.  By contrast, plains zebra stallions are generally intolerant of foals that are not theirs and may practice infanticide and feticide via violence to the pregnant mare.