Students with disabilities received better grades in special education classes than they did in general education classes, but a number of students failed special education courses, too. Promising alternatives to traditional professional development models include teacher collaboratives and other networks, subject matter associations, collaborations between schools and universities, professional development schools, and teachers as researchers (Corcoran, 1995; Little, 1993; National Commission on Teaching and America's Future, 1996; O'Day et al., 1995). The degree of variation among the state content standards and their politically charged nature have led states to call their content standards by different names, including goals, standards, examples, benchmarks, guidelines, and frameworks (Council of Chief State School Officers, 1995). Together, these three broad characteristics of effective special education instruction—individually referenced decision making, intensive instruction, and explicit contextualization of skills-based instruction—represent a potent set of practices, which have been demonstrated to enhance the learning for students with cognitive disabilities. Applying explicit, intensive instruction in a contextualized setting results in more meaningful participation and performance in normal, age-based routines for children with severe disabilities (Nietupski and Hamre-Nietupski, 1987; Snell and Brown, 1993) and helps them develop general social. riculum. By twelfth grade, 89 percent of students with disabilities were taking at least one vocational education course (Wagner et al., 1993a:2–4). The states selected for review were Colorado, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, New York, Oregon, and Vermont. SIF Data Model: Data model for representing and transmitting educational information. Some well-developed methods do exist for enhancing the IEP as a mechanism for accountability for student learning (e.g., Deno, 1985; Shapiro and Kratochwill, 1988). The study considered children with a wide range of special needs and used case studies of special schools, special units attached to mainstream schools, and mainstream schools along with questionnaires, interviews, and teachers' logs. The influential standards developed by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) exemplify how many of the new standards have embraced pedagogical principles such as constructivism: "This constructive, active view of the learning process must be reflected in the way much of mathematics is taught" (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1989:10). Content standards should provide a coherent structure to guide curriculum and instruction" (McLaughlin and Shepard, 1995:20). These characteristics are placement-neutral; that is, they describe how instruction occurs, not where instruction takes place. Similarly, students with disabilities are more likely to concentrate in a vocational program—defined as completing three or more courses in a single occupationally specific field—than are other students (National Center for Education Statistics, 1996:Table 3.7). This philosophy resulted in services that often isolated the individual and provided physical care rather than preparation for life in a heterogeneous world. Thus, students with disabilities operate in a credentialing universe much more complex than their general education counterparts. Case studies were developed through analyses of interview data, document reviews, and observations conducted during on-site visits (M.W. These state efforts are designed to provide greater consistency across students' programs in terms of the quality of educational experiences and instructional focus. PESC ePortfolio: The Academic ePortolio schema facilitates the transmission of eportfolio data from one eportfolio system to another. Because approaches to assessment and accountability are key to standards-based reforms, the committee analyzes how assessment systems currently address students with disabilities, including testing accommodations. Indeed, three empirical literatures question the tenability of constructivist principles for many students with disabilities. 1401 [A]). Curriculum standards are a set of rules or guidelines that reflect the goals of an educational system or community. In some instances, this has led to policies that increase academic credit requirements for high school graduation. The goals of standards-based reform to raise expectations, improve educational outcomes, and strengthen curriculum content are as important to students with disabilities as they are to children without disabilities. By contrast, effective practice in special education, as measured by teacher decision making about instructional modifications and student achievement in reading, math, and spelling, centers instructional decision making on the individual student (Fuchs and Fuchs, 1995). IMS Caliper Analytics: A protocol for transmitting and collecting learning events for later analysis. For parents to participate meaningfully in these decisions, they will need in depth knowledge of the various aspects of standards-based reform and the meaning of any decisions to alter content standards. Adopted by many U.S. States. For example, youth who took a concentration of four or more related classes in vocational education were less likely to drop out of school in either eleventh or twelfth grade (Wagner et al., 1993a:2–9). The costs of implementing new professional development programs will depend on how they are structured and what they include. This section describes the post-school outcomes traditionally valued in special education for many students with disabilities and their instructional implications. support, but how much more is unknown. Constructivism emphasizes active, self-regulated learning, higher-order thinking skills, and synthesis of knowledge from various sources and content areas. This concept has proved controversial and subject to litigation (Debra P. v. Turlington 644 F. 2d 397, 1981), both for students with disabilities and for other disadvantaged groups (see Chapter 5 for further discussion). Research has identified three broad characteristics of effective instruction for students with cognitive disabilities (who constitute the majority of students with disabilities): individually referenced decision making that focuses on the individual student's needs, intensive methods of delivering instruction, and explicit contextualization of skills-based instruction Currently, it is not known whether these three characteristics of effective instruction can be delivered comprehensively enough to allow students with cognitive disabilities to meet common content standards. In addition, for an education to be deemed appropriate, the package of special education and related services must be defined in an IEP, in conformity with the IDEA's procedural requirements, and must be reasonably calculated to allow the student to receive educational benefits (Board of Education of Hendrick Hudson Central School District v. Rowley, 458 U.S. 176, 1982). MedBiquitous Competency Framework: The Competency Framework allows competencies and learning outcomes to be used as the backbone of education and performance management systems, enabling users to search for resources addressing a specific competency and determine where competencies are addressed in the curriculum. The complex educational and legal issues surrounding the participation of students with disabilities in standards-based reform suggest that it will be necessary to develop a defensible procedure that can be used to determine the appropriateness of the content standards for each student with a disability. Matrix of Curriculum Standards (Competencies), with Corresponding Recommended Flexible Learning Delivery Mode and Materials per Grading Period GRADE 4 ENGLISH Grading Period Learning … DIRECTIONS: List required courses on matrix and provide additional narrative to explain how standards are met. Consequently, for many students with cognitive disabilities, data-based arguments support a situated approach to teaching, which blends explicit teaching of skills with contextually rich learning experiences, a position that echoes important principles of constructivism. One such standard, "Students read and understand a variety of materials," included the expectation that students will use comprehension skills (such as previewing, predicting, comparing and contrasting, re-reading, and self-monitoring) as well as word recognition skills (such as phonics, context clues, picture clues, word origins, and word order clues). Furthermore, data linking participation in the general education curriculum to academic achievement are largely absent due to the lack of representation of students with disabilities in large-scale national studies, such as the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS) and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) (McGrew et al., 1993, 1995). This chapter provides an overview of post-school outcomes and curricular and instructional issues for students with disabilities and their relationships to standards. Michigan has developed outcomes for seven types of students with disabilities at ages 10, 13, and 16 (Michigan Department of Education, 1995). Research on these characteristics is limited to how student acquire and use a range of relatively basic or middle-order skills, from functional personal management skills, to the achievement of literacy and numeracy, to the extraction of conceptual themes or "big ideas" (Carnine and Kameenui, 1992). A contrasting opinion, however, was that the entire curriculum offered to students with disabilities was becoming too broad, which meant that schools could not offer any topics in depth because of the slow rate at which their students learned and the amount of reinforcement and repetition needed. Moreover, this information is limited to effects on instruction rather than achievement. No. Children were assigned randomly to four conditions: a conventional general education control group and one of three experimental conditions, which represented a range of methods but shared the feature of one-to-one tutoring that fostered intensive instruction. The book addresses legal and resource implications, as well as parental participation in children's education. Amid these concerns, teacher licensure for special education and general education teachers has remained on separate tracks (Andrews, 1995). In fact, meaningful participation by students with cognitive disabilities among normal, age-appropriate peer groups for instructional activities can be critical for promoting social development and communicative competence (Haring and Ryndak, 1994; Nietupski and Hamre-Nietupski, 1987; Snell and Brown, 1993). Student Achievement Goals; Curriculum Design Process; Elementary Curriculum. We note that these three instructional characteristics represent practices that often differ from those of general education. Assistive technology includes both high-tech and low-tech devices. Torgesen (1996), for example, has studied students with phonological processing deficits, who had been predicted to experience serious problems in learning to read. In our examination of standards in seven states, we also looked at their references to specific pedagogy. In addition, parents, educators, business, and the public all agree that students need to learn how to use computers in order to succeed in the 21st century. The results of this review of state standards indicated that recently developed state standards frameworks link math. The Ed-Fi Assessment Outcomes API describes a REST API surface to enable exchange of assessment metadata and student assessment results between disparate and geographically separated systems operated by different organizations. In a sense, then, content standards signal the outcomes that the public, policy makers, and educators consider valuable for students to exhibit at the end of their secondary schooling. Some states attach specific standards to grade levels; other provide more general outcomes that must be met at the elementary, middle, and high school levels. The Ed-Fi Core Student Data API standard describes a REST API surface that covers the core data domains typically managed by student information systems in K–12 education. the demands of the environment; skills are never taught in isolation from actual performance demands. It is difficult to imagine how students with disabilities will be included in standards-based reform without a significant investment in teacher preparation and teacher development. Neither states nor most local school districts have systems in place to account for these expenditures. The premise is that effective instruction involves systematic planning to determine the kinds of skills to be taught and the most effective contexts in which to teach and apply them. The recommended curriculum in general has little impact on the written curriculum and perhaps less of an effect on the classroom teacher. When content and performance standards are part of the general curriculum, it can be further argued that the IEP team should address these standards when they make determinations about appropriate education and plan a curriculum and instruction for students with disabilities. Although the references varied across the standards, the standards did suggest at least two implications for instruction. Among the states, consideration of students with disabilities varies (Goertz and Friedman, 1996). Recent nationally representative data on secondary school course-taking patterns in 1987 and 1992 confirm that academic course-taking has increased (see Table 4-2). In sum, standards-based reform holds considerable expectations for educators, and preparing them to meet these expectations is likely to require significant resources (Box 4-3). Production. We then looked more closely at the standards documents in the areas of language arts/reading, mathematics, and social studies, to see whether they are generic or subject-matter-specific, what levels of knowledge they demand, and how explicit they are about pedagogy. Colorado defines its model content standards as setting "high expectations in these areas for all students" (Colorado Department of Education, 1995:3). IEPs focus only on services directly related to a student's disability and on areas of the curriculum for which there is specifically designed instruction; therefore, IEP goals may not directly relate to all of the content embodied in the common curriculum. real-world situations (Bryan et al., 1992). Universal Design for Learning: A framework to optimize teaching and learning based on learning science and in support of students of all abilities. To overcome this deficit, these students require explicit instruction in recognizing discrete speech-sound segments and recognizing words (Stanovich, 1995). For example, most states require students to be able to write well, apply prior knowledge to understand texts, demonstrate an ability to organize information, work with others, relate different experiences, integrate English skills throughout the curriculum, and demonstrate cultural sensitivity (Council for Basic Education, 1996). 3 THE DIVERSITY OF STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES, The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Educating One and All: Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform, 4 CONTENT STANDARDS, CURRICULUM, AND INSTRUCTION, B WORKSHOP SUMMARY: STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES AND STANDARDS-BASED REFORM, C USING THE PROSPECTS DATA TO REPORT ON THE ACHIEVEMENT OF STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES. Political problems notwithstanding, the provision of realistic alternatives for addressing the specific learning requirements of certain students with disabilities, acknowledging their skill requirements for successful post-school adjustments, and creating challenging but personalized standards seems to reflect the spirit of the standards-based reform movement. In a second state, the standard, "Comprehend a variety of printed materials," included the ability to recognize, pronounce, and know the meaning of words using phonics skills, language structure, context clues, and visual skills. For example, if a secondary student misses American literature and a science class while working intensively on learning to read, the system should not hold this individual accountable for meeting content standards if no opportunity to learn has been provided. Some observers have raised concerns that, as these efforts continue, "increases in credit requirements (may) force some students with disabilities to choose courses with an academic orientation that may not have been the most appropriate or relevant to their post-school goals" (Wagner, 1993). As discussed in Chapter 2, states are taking various approaches to developing content standards; consequently, their standards tend to differ by level of. Yet many children do not have access to these materials.5. Thus, content standards are not simply a list of important knowledge and skills. Thus, additional professional development will be essential to help both general educators and special educators understand new content standards and their pedagogical implications and to prepare them to accommodate a range of learners. We considered only students with cognitive disabilities because they represent the majority of students identified as having a disability. Educational or Occupational Credential: A diploma, academic degree, certification, qualification, badge, etc., that may be awarded to a person or other entity that meets the requirements defined by the credentialer. Evidence of potential effects of content standards on the instruction provided to students with disabilities appears in a report of a national investigation of the national curriculum of England and Wales conducted by the National Foundation for Educational Research/Bishop Grosseteste College (Christophers et al., 1992). These documented problems with IEPs are particularly troublesome because of concerns that IEPs represent the entire curriculum in a specific subject matter for some students with disabilities (Pugach and Warger, 1993; Sands et al., 1995). Consider creating a curriculum map (also known as a curriculum matrix) so that you can properly evaluate the sequence and coherence of instruction. Research on specific interventions that applied these three characteristics to teach students with cognitive disabilities documented positive effects ranging from .50 to over 1.5 standard deviations (Forness and Kavale, 1996; Swanson, 1996). As noted by Billingsley et al. Second, constructivism holds that segmenting the curriculum into a hierarchy of discrete skills runs counter to how children learn (Harris and Graham, 1995). Although the precise legal requirements are not yet clear, the legal analysis con-. Alaska reported that application of standards to students with disabilities is voluntary (Rhim and McLaughlin, 1996). First. Similarly, without explicit instruction, the language development of many children with cognitive disabilities suffers (Warren and Yoder, 1994). Some students, including some with disabilities, who currently receive certificates of attendance face this problem. The DfE supports the matrix Standard as … Resource descriptions support labor market outcomes, education and career pathways, and employer preferences. A number of issues about credentialing for students with disabilities warrant attention. Educating One and All examines the curricula and expected outcomes of standards-based education and the educational experience of students with disabilities—and identifies points of alignment between the two areas.

matrix of curriculum standards

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